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tclUtf.c

/*
 * tclUtf.c --
 *
 *    Routines for manipulating UTF-8 strings.
 *
 * Copyright (c) 1997-1998 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
 *
 * See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
 * of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
 *
 * RCS: @(#) $Id: tclUtf.c,v 1.30.2.3 2005/09/07 14:35:56 dgp Exp $
 */

#include "tclInt.h"

/*
 * Include the static character classification tables and macros.
 */

#include "tclUniData.c"

/*
 * The following macros are used for fast character category tests.  The
 * x_BITS values are shifted right by the category value to determine whether
 * the given category is included in the set.
 */ 

#define ALPHA_BITS ((1 << UPPERCASE_LETTER) | (1 << LOWERCASE_LETTER) \
    | (1 << TITLECASE_LETTER) | (1 << MODIFIER_LETTER) | (1 << OTHER_LETTER))

#define DIGIT_BITS (1 << DECIMAL_DIGIT_NUMBER)

#define SPACE_BITS ((1 << SPACE_SEPARATOR) | (1 << LINE_SEPARATOR) \
    | (1 << PARAGRAPH_SEPARATOR))

#define CONNECTOR_BITS (1 << CONNECTOR_PUNCTUATION)

#define PRINT_BITS (ALPHA_BITS | DIGIT_BITS | SPACE_BITS | \
          (1 << NON_SPACING_MARK) | (1 << ENCLOSING_MARK) | \
          (1 << COMBINING_SPACING_MARK) | (1 << LETTER_NUMBER) | \
          (1 << OTHER_NUMBER) | (1 << CONNECTOR_PUNCTUATION) | \
          (1 << DASH_PUNCTUATION) | (1 << OPEN_PUNCTUATION) | \
          (1 << CLOSE_PUNCTUATION) | (1 << INITIAL_QUOTE_PUNCTUATION) | \
          (1 << FINAL_QUOTE_PUNCTUATION) | (1 << OTHER_PUNCTUATION) | \
          (1 << MATH_SYMBOL) | (1 << CURRENCY_SYMBOL) | \
          (1 << MODIFIER_SYMBOL) | (1 << OTHER_SYMBOL))

#define PUNCT_BITS ((1 << CONNECTOR_PUNCTUATION) | \
          (1 << DASH_PUNCTUATION) | (1 << OPEN_PUNCTUATION) | \
          (1 << CLOSE_PUNCTUATION) | (1 << INITIAL_QUOTE_PUNCTUATION) | \
          (1 << FINAL_QUOTE_PUNCTUATION) | (1 << OTHER_PUNCTUATION))

/*
 * Unicode characters less than this value are represented by themselves 
 * in UTF-8 strings. 
 */

#define UNICODE_SELF    0x80

/*
 * The following structures are used when mapping between Unicode (UCS-2)
 * and UTF-8.
 */

static CONST unsigned char totalBytes[256] = {
    1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,
    1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,
    1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,
    1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,
    1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,
    1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,
    2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,
    3,3,3,3,3,3,3,3,3,3,3,3,3,3,3,3,
#if TCL_UTF_MAX > 3
    4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,
#else
    1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,
#endif
#if TCL_UTF_MAX > 4
    5,5,5,5,
#else
    1,1,1,1,
#endif
#if TCL_UTF_MAX > 5
    6,6,6,6
#else
    1,1,1,1
#endif
};

/*
 * Procedures used only in this module.
 */

static int UtfCount _ANSI_ARGS_((int ch));


/*
 *---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * UtfCount --
 *
 *    Find the number of bytes in the Utf character "ch".
 *
 * Results:
 *    The return values is the number of bytes in the Utf character "ch".
 *
 * Side effects:
 *    None.
 *
 *---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 */
 
INLINE static int
UtfCount(ch)
    int ch;             /* The Tcl_UniChar whose size is returned. */
{
    if ((ch > 0) && (ch < UNICODE_SELF)) {
      return 1;
    }
    if (ch <= 0x7FF) {
      return 2;
    }
    if (ch <= 0xFFFF) {
      return 3;
    }
#if TCL_UTF_MAX > 3
    if (ch <= 0x1FFFFF) {
      return 4;
    }
    if (ch <= 0x3FFFFFF) {
      return 5;
    }
    if (ch <= 0x7FFFFFFF) {
      return 6;
    }
#endif
    return 3;
}

/*
 *---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * Tcl_UniCharToUtf --
 *
 *    Store the given Tcl_UniChar as a sequence of UTF-8 bytes in the
 *    provided buffer.  Equivalent to Plan 9 runetochar().
 *
 * Results:
 *    The return values is the number of bytes in the buffer that
 *    were consumed.  
 *
 * Side effects:
 *    None.
 *
 *---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 */
 
INLINE int
Tcl_UniCharToUtf(ch, str)
    int ch;             /* The Tcl_UniChar to be stored in the
                         * buffer. */
    char *str;                /* Buffer in which the UTF-8 representation
                         * of the Tcl_UniChar is stored.  Buffer must
                         * be large enough to hold the UTF-8 character
                         * (at most TCL_UTF_MAX bytes). */
{
    if ((ch > 0) && (ch < UNICODE_SELF)) {
      str[0] = (char) ch;
      return 1;
    }
    if (ch >= 0) {
      if (ch <= 0x7FF) {
          str[1] = (char) ((ch | 0x80) & 0xBF);
          str[0] = (char) ((ch >> 6) | 0xC0);
          return 2;
      }
      if (ch <= 0xFFFF) {
      three:
          str[2] = (char) ((ch | 0x80) & 0xBF);
          str[1] = (char) (((ch >> 6) | 0x80) & 0xBF);
          str[0] = (char) ((ch >> 12) | 0xE0);
          return 3;
      }

#if TCL_UTF_MAX > 3
      if (ch <= 0x1FFFFF) {
          str[3] = (char) ((ch | 0x80) & 0xBF);
          str[2] = (char) (((ch >> 6) | 0x80) & 0xBF);
          str[1] = (char) (((ch >> 12) | 0x80) & 0xBF);
          str[0] = (char) ((ch >> 18) | 0xF0);
          return 4;
      }
      if (ch <= 0x3FFFFFF) {
          str[4] = (char) ((ch | 0x80) & 0xBF);
          str[3] = (char) (((ch >> 6) | 0x80) & 0xBF);
          str[2] = (char) (((ch >> 12) | 0x80) & 0xBF);
          str[1] = (char) (((ch >> 18) | 0x80) & 0xBF);
          str[0] = (char) ((ch >> 24) | 0xF8);
          return 5;
      }
      if (ch <= 0x7FFFFFFF) {
          str[5] = (char) ((ch | 0x80) & 0xBF);
          str[4] = (char) (((ch >> 6) | 0x80) & 0xBF);
          str[3] = (char) (((ch >> 12) | 0x80) & 0xBF);
          str[2] = (char) (((ch >> 18) | 0x80) & 0xBF);
          str[1] = (char) (((ch >> 24) | 0x80) & 0xBF);
          str[0] = (char) ((ch >> 30) | 0xFC);
          return 6;
      }
#endif
    }

    ch = 0xFFFD;
    goto three;
}

/*
 *---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * Tcl_UniCharToUtfDString --
 *
 *    Convert the given Unicode string to UTF-8.
 *
 * Results:
 *    The return value is a pointer to the UTF-8 representation of the
 *    Unicode string.  Storage for the return value is appended to the
 *    end of dsPtr.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *    None.
 *
 *---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 */
 
char *
Tcl_UniCharToUtfDString(wString, numChars, dsPtr)
    CONST Tcl_UniChar *wString;     /* Unicode string to convert to UTF-8. */
    int numChars;       /* Length of Unicode string in Tcl_UniChars
                         * (must be >= 0). */
    Tcl_DString *dsPtr;       /* UTF-8 representation of string is
                         * appended to this previously initialized
                         * DString. */
{
    CONST Tcl_UniChar *w, *wEnd;
    char *p, *string;
    int oldLength;

    /*
     * UTF-8 string length in bytes will be <= Unicode string length *
     * TCL_UTF_MAX.
     */

    oldLength = Tcl_DStringLength(dsPtr);
    Tcl_DStringSetLength(dsPtr, (oldLength + numChars + 1) * TCL_UTF_MAX);
    string = Tcl_DStringValue(dsPtr) + oldLength;

    p = string;
    wEnd = wString + numChars;
    for (w = wString; w < wEnd; ) {
      p += Tcl_UniCharToUtf(*w, p);
      w++;
    }
    Tcl_DStringSetLength(dsPtr, oldLength + (p - string));

    return string;
}

/*
 *---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * Tcl_UtfToUniChar --
 *
 *    Extract the Tcl_UniChar represented by the UTF-8 string.  Bad
 *    UTF-8 sequences are converted to valid Tcl_UniChars and processing
 *    continues.  Equivalent to Plan 9 chartorune().
 *
 *    The caller must ensure that the source buffer is long enough that
 *    this routine does not run off the end and dereference non-existent
 *    memory looking for trail bytes.  If the source buffer is known to
 *    be '\0' terminated, this cannot happen.  Otherwise, the caller
 *    should call Tcl_UtfCharComplete() before calling this routine to
 *    ensure that enough bytes remain in the string.
 *
 * Results:
 *    *chPtr is filled with the Tcl_UniChar, and the return value is the
 *    number of bytes from the UTF-8 string that were consumed.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *    None.
 *
 *---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 */
 
int
Tcl_UtfToUniChar(str, chPtr)
    register CONST char *str;  /* The UTF-8 string. */
    register Tcl_UniChar *chPtr; /* Filled with the Tcl_UniChar represented
                          * by the UTF-8 string. */
{
    register int byte;
    
    /*
     * Unroll 1 to 3 byte UTF-8 sequences, use loop to handle longer ones.
     */

    byte = *((unsigned char *) str);
    if (byte < 0xC0) {
      /*
       * Handles properly formed UTF-8 characters between 0x01 and 0x7F.
       * Also treats \0 and naked trail bytes 0x80 to 0xBF as valid
       * characters representing themselves.
       */

      *chPtr = (Tcl_UniChar) byte;
      return 1;
    } else if (byte < 0xE0) {
      if ((str[1] & 0xC0) == 0x80) {
          /*
           * Two-byte-character lead-byte followed by a trail-byte.
           */

          *chPtr = (Tcl_UniChar) (((byte & 0x1F) << 6) | (str[1] & 0x3F));
          return 2;
      }
      /*
       * A two-byte-character lead-byte not followed by trail-byte
       * represents itself.
       */

      *chPtr = (Tcl_UniChar) byte;
      return 1;
    } else if (byte < 0xF0) {
      if (((str[1] & 0xC0) == 0x80) && ((str[2] & 0xC0) == 0x80)) {
          /*
           * Three-byte-character lead byte followed by two trail bytes.
           */

          *chPtr = (Tcl_UniChar) (((byte & 0x0F) << 12) 
                | ((str[1] & 0x3F) << 6) | (str[2] & 0x3F));
          return 3;
      }
      /*
       * A three-byte-character lead-byte not followed by two trail-bytes
       * represents itself.
       */

      *chPtr = (Tcl_UniChar) byte;
      return 1;
    }
#if TCL_UTF_MAX > 3
    else {
      int ch, total, trail;

      total = totalBytes[byte];
      trail = total - 1;
      if (trail > 0) {
          ch = byte & (0x3F >> trail);
          do {
            str++;
            if ((*str & 0xC0) != 0x80) {
                *chPtr = byte;
                return 1;
            }
            ch <<= 6;
            ch |= (*str & 0x3F);
            trail--;
          } while (trail > 0);
          *chPtr = ch;
          return total;
      }
    }
#endif

    *chPtr = (Tcl_UniChar) byte;
    return 1;
}

/*
 *---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * Tcl_UtfToUniCharDString --
 *
 *    Convert the UTF-8 string to Unicode.
 *
 * Results:
 *    The return value is a pointer to the Unicode representation of the
 *    UTF-8 string.  Storage for the return value is appended to the
 *    end of dsPtr.  The Unicode string is terminated with a Unicode
 *    NULL character.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *    None.
 *
 *---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

Tcl_UniChar *
Tcl_UtfToUniCharDString(string, length, dsPtr)
    CONST char *string;       /* UTF-8 string to convert to Unicode. */
    int length;               /* Length of UTF-8 string in bytes, or -1
                         * for strlen(). */
    Tcl_DString *dsPtr;       /* Unicode representation of string is
                         * appended to this previously initialized
                         * DString. */
{
    Tcl_UniChar *w, *wString;
    CONST char *p, *end;
    int oldLength;

    if (length < 0) {
      length = strlen(string);
    }

    /*
     * Unicode string length in Tcl_UniChars will be <= UTF-8 string length
     * in bytes.
     */

    oldLength = Tcl_DStringLength(dsPtr);
    Tcl_DStringSetLength(dsPtr,
          (int) ((oldLength + length + 1) * sizeof(Tcl_UniChar)));
    wString = (Tcl_UniChar *) (Tcl_DStringValue(dsPtr) + oldLength);

    w = wString;
    end = string + length;
    for (p = string; p < end; ) {
      p += TclUtfToUniChar(p, w);
      w++;
    }
    *w = '\0';
    Tcl_DStringSetLength(dsPtr,
          (oldLength + ((char *) w - (char *) wString)));

    return wString;
}

/*
 *---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * Tcl_UtfCharComplete --
 *
 *    Determine if the UTF-8 string of the given length is long enough
 *    to be decoded by Tcl_UtfToUniChar().  This does not ensure that the
 *    UTF-8 string is properly formed.  Equivalent to Plan 9 fullrune().
 *
 * Results:
 *    The return value is 0 if the string is not long enough, non-zero
 *    otherwise.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *    None.
 *
 *---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

int
Tcl_UtfCharComplete(str, len)
    CONST char *str;          /* String to check if first few bytes
                         * contain a complete UTF-8 character. */
    int len;                  /* Length of above string in bytes. */
{
    int ch;

    ch = *((unsigned char *) str);
    return len >= totalBytes[ch];
}

/*
 *---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * Tcl_NumUtfChars --
 *
 *    Returns the number of characters (not bytes) in the UTF-8 string,
 *    not including the terminating NULL byte.  This is equivalent to
 *    Plan 9 utflen() and utfnlen().
 *
 * Results:
 *    As above.  
 *
 * Side effects:
 *    None.
 *
 *---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 */
 
int 
Tcl_NumUtfChars(str, len)
    register CONST char *str; /* The UTF-8 string to measure. */
    int len;                  /* The length of the string in bytes, or -1
                         * for strlen(string). */
{
    Tcl_UniChar ch;
    register Tcl_UniChar *chPtr = &ch;
    register int i;

    /*
     * The separate implementations are faster.
     *
     * Since this is a time-sensitive function, we also do the check for
     * the single-byte char case specially.
     */

    i = 0;
    if (len < 0) {
      while (*str != '\0') {
          str += TclUtfToUniChar(str, chPtr);
          i++;
      }
    } else {
      register int n;

      while (len > 0) {
          if (UCHAR(*str) < 0xC0) {
            len--;
            str++;
          } else {
            n = Tcl_UtfToUniChar(str, chPtr);
            len -= n;
            str += n;
          }
          i++;
      }
    }
    return i;
}

/*
 *---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * Tcl_UtfFindFirst --
 *
 *    Returns a pointer to the first occurance of the given Tcl_UniChar
 *    in the NULL-terminated UTF-8 string.  The NULL terminator is
 *    considered part of the UTF-8 string.  Equivalent to Plan 9
 *    utfrune().
 *
 * Results:
 *    As above.  If the Tcl_UniChar does not exist in the given string,
 *    the return value is NULL.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *    None.
 *
 *---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 */
CONST char *
Tcl_UtfFindFirst(string, ch)
    CONST char *string;       /* The UTF-8 string to be searched. */
    int ch;             /* The Tcl_UniChar to search for. */
{
    int len;
    Tcl_UniChar find;
    
    while (1) {
      len = TclUtfToUniChar(string, &find);
      if (find == ch) {
          return string;
      }
      if (*string == '\0') {
          return NULL;
      }
      string += len;
    }
}

/*
 *---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * Tcl_UtfFindLast --
 *
 *    Returns a pointer to the last occurance of the given Tcl_UniChar
 *    in the NULL-terminated UTF-8 string.  The NULL terminator is
 *    considered part of the UTF-8 string.  Equivalent to Plan 9
 *    utfrrune().
 *
 * Results:
 *    As above.  If the Tcl_UniChar does not exist in the given string,
 *    the return value is NULL.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *    None.
 *
 *---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

CONST char *
Tcl_UtfFindLast(string, ch)
    CONST char *string;       /* The UTF-8 string to be searched. */
    int ch;             /* The Tcl_UniChar to search for. */
{
    int len;
    Tcl_UniChar find;
    CONST char *last;
      
    last = NULL;
    while (1) {
      len = TclUtfToUniChar(string, &find);
      if (find == ch) {
          last = string;
      }
      if (*string == '\0') {
          break;
      }
      string += len;
    }
    return last;
}

/*
 *---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * Tcl_UtfNext --
 *
 *    Given a pointer to some current location in a UTF-8 string,
 *    move forward one character.  The caller must ensure that they
 *    are not asking for the next character after the last character
 *    in the string.
 *
 * Results:
 *    The return value is the pointer to the next character in
 *    the UTF-8 string.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *    None.
 *
 *---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 */
 
CONST char *
Tcl_UtfNext(str) 
    CONST char *str;              /* The current location in the string. */
{
    Tcl_UniChar ch;

    return str + TclUtfToUniChar(str, &ch);
}

/*
 *---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * Tcl_UtfPrev --
 *
 *    Given a pointer to some current location in a UTF-8 string,
 *    move backwards one character.  This works correctly when the
 *    pointer is in the middle of a UTF-8 character.
 *
 * Results:
 *    The return value is a pointer to the previous character in the
 *    UTF-8 string.  If the current location was already at the
 *    beginning of the string, the return value will also be a
 *    pointer to the beginning of the string.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *    None.
 *
 *---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

CONST char *
Tcl_UtfPrev(str, start)
    CONST char *str;              /* The current location in the string. */
    CONST char *start;            /* Pointer to the beginning of the
                             * string, to avoid going backwards too
                             * far. */
{
    CONST char *look;
    int i, byte;
    
    str--;
    look = str;
    for (i = 0; i < TCL_UTF_MAX; i++) {
      if (look < start) {
          if (str < start) {
            str = start;
          }
          break;
      }
      byte = *((unsigned char *) look);
      if (byte < 0x80) {
          break;
      }
      if (byte >= 0xC0) {
          return look;
      }
      look--;
    }
    return str;
}
     
/*
 *---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * Tcl_UniCharAtIndex --
 *
 *    Returns the Unicode character represented at the specified
 *    character (not byte) position in the UTF-8 string.
 *
 * Results:
 *    As above.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *    None.
 *
 *---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 */
 
Tcl_UniChar
Tcl_UniCharAtIndex(src, index)
    register CONST char *src; /* The UTF-8 string to dereference. */
    register int index;       /* The position of the desired character. */
{
    Tcl_UniChar ch;

    while (index >= 0) {
      index--;
      src += TclUtfToUniChar(src, &ch);
    }
    return ch;
}

/*
 *---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * Tcl_UtfAtIndex --
 *
 *    Returns a pointer to the specified character (not byte) position
 *    in the UTF-8 string.
 *
 * Results:
 *    As above.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *    None.
 *
 *---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

CONST char *
Tcl_UtfAtIndex(src, index)
    register CONST char *src; /* The UTF-8 string. */
    register int index;       /* The position of the desired character. */
{
    Tcl_UniChar ch;
    
    while (index > 0) {
      index--;
      src += TclUtfToUniChar(src, &ch);
    }
    return src;
}

/*
 *---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * Tcl_UtfBackslash --
 *
 *    Figure out how to handle a backslash sequence.
 *
 * Results:
 *    Stores the bytes represented by the backslash sequence in dst and
 *    returns the number of bytes written to dst.  At most TCL_UTF_MAX
 *    bytes are written to dst; dst must have been large enough to accept
 *    those bytes.  If readPtr isn't NULL then it is filled in with a
 *    count of the number of bytes in the backslash sequence.  
 *
 * Side effects:
 *    The maximum number of bytes it takes to represent a Unicode
 *    character in UTF-8 is guaranteed to be less than the number of
 *    bytes used to express the backslash sequence that represents
 *    that Unicode character.  If the target buffer into which the
 *    caller is going to store the bytes that represent the Unicode
 *    character is at least as large as the source buffer from which
 *    the backslashed sequence was extracted, no buffer overruns should
 *    occur.
 *
 *---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

int
Tcl_UtfBackslash(src, readPtr, dst)
    CONST char *src;          /* Points to the backslash character of
                         * a backslash sequence. */
    int *readPtr;       /* Fill in with number of characters read
                         * from src, unless NULL. */
    char *dst;                /* Filled with the bytes represented by the
                         * backslash sequence. */
{
#define LINE_LENGTH 128
    int numRead;
    int result;

    result = TclParseBackslash(src, LINE_LENGTH, &numRead, dst);
    if (numRead == LINE_LENGTH) {
      /* We ate a whole line.  Pay the price of a strlen() */
      result = TclParseBackslash(src, (int)strlen(src), &numRead, dst);
    }
    if (readPtr != NULL) {
      *readPtr = numRead;
    }
    return result;
}

/*
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * Tcl_UtfToUpper --
 *
 *    Convert lowercase characters to uppercase characters in a UTF
 *    string in place.  The conversion may shrink the UTF string.
 *
 * Results:
 *    Returns the number of bytes in the resulting string
 *    excluding the trailing null.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *    Writes a terminating null after the last converted character.
 *
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

int
Tcl_UtfToUpper(str)
    char *str;                /* String to convert in place. */
{
    Tcl_UniChar ch, upChar;
    char *src, *dst;
    int bytes;

    /*
     * Iterate over the string until we hit the terminating null.
     */

    src = dst = str;
    while (*src) {
        bytes = TclUtfToUniChar(src, &ch);
      upChar = Tcl_UniCharToUpper(ch);

      /*
       * To keep badly formed Utf strings from getting inflated by
       * the conversion (thereby causing a segfault), only copy the
       * upper case char to dst if its size is <= the original char.
       */
      
      if (bytes < UtfCount(upChar)) {
          memcpy(dst, src, (size_t) bytes);
          dst += bytes;
      } else {
          dst += Tcl_UniCharToUtf(upChar, dst);
      }
      src += bytes;
    }
    *dst = '\0';
    return (dst - str);
}

/*
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * Tcl_UtfToLower --
 *
 *    Convert uppercase characters to lowercase characters in a UTF
 *    string in place.  The conversion may shrink the UTF string.
 *
 * Results:
 *    Returns the number of bytes in the resulting string
 *    excluding the trailing null.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *    Writes a terminating null after the last converted character.
 *
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

int
Tcl_UtfToLower(str)
    char *str;                /* String to convert in place. */
{
    Tcl_UniChar ch, lowChar;
    char *src, *dst;
    int bytes;
    
    /*
     * Iterate over the string until we hit the terminating null.
     */

    src = dst = str;
    while (*src) {
      bytes = TclUtfToUniChar(src, &ch);
      lowChar = Tcl_UniCharToLower(ch);

      /*
       * To keep badly formed Utf strings from getting inflated by
       * the conversion (thereby causing a segfault), only copy the
       * lower case char to dst if its size is <= the original char.
       */
      
      if (bytes < UtfCount(lowChar)) {
          memcpy(dst, src, (size_t) bytes);
          dst += bytes;
      } else {
          dst += Tcl_UniCharToUtf(lowChar, dst);
      }
      src += bytes;
    }
    *dst = '\0';
    return (dst - str);
}

/*
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * Tcl_UtfToTitle --
 *
 *    Changes the first character of a UTF string to title case or
 *    uppercase and the rest of the string to lowercase.  The
 *    conversion happens in place and may shrink the UTF string.
 *
 * Results:
 *    Returns the number of bytes in the resulting string
 *    excluding the trailing null.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *    Writes a terminating null after the last converted character.
 *
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

int
Tcl_UtfToTitle(str)
    char *str;                /* String to convert in place. */
{
    Tcl_UniChar ch, titleChar, lowChar;
    char *src, *dst;
    int bytes;
    
    /*
     * Capitalize the first character and then lowercase the rest of the
     * characters until we get to a null.
     */

    src = dst = str;

    if (*src) {
      bytes = TclUtfToUniChar(src, &ch);
      titleChar = Tcl_UniCharToTitle(ch);

      if (bytes < UtfCount(titleChar)) {
          memcpy(dst, src, (size_t) bytes);
          dst += bytes;
      } else {
          dst += Tcl_UniCharToUtf(titleChar, dst);
      }
      src += bytes;
    }
    while (*src) {
      bytes = TclUtfToUniChar(src, &ch);
      lowChar = Tcl_UniCharToLower(ch);

      if (bytes < UtfCount(lowChar)) {
          memcpy(dst, src, (size_t) bytes);
          dst += bytes;
      } else {
          dst += Tcl_UniCharToUtf(lowChar, dst);
      }
      src += bytes;
    }
    *dst = '\0';
    return (dst - str);
}

/*
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * TclpUtfNcmp2 --
 *
 *    Compare at most n bytes of utf-8 strings cs and ct.  Both cs
 *    and ct are assumed to be at least n bytes long.
 *
 * Results:
 *    Return <0 if cs < ct, 0 if cs == ct, or >0 if cs > ct.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *    None.
 *
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

int
TclpUtfNcmp2(cs, ct, n)
    CONST char *cs;           /* UTF string to compare to ct. */
    CONST char *ct;           /* UTF string cs is compared to. */
    unsigned long n;          /* Number of *bytes* to compare. */
{
    /*
     * We can't simply call 'memcmp(cs, ct, n);' because we need to check
     * for Tcl's \xC0\x80 non-utf-8 null encoding.
     * Otherwise utf-8 lexes fine in the strcmp manner.
     */
    register int result = 0;

    for ( ; n != 0; n--, cs++, ct++) {
      if (*cs != *ct) {
          result = UCHAR(*cs) - UCHAR(*ct);
          break;
      }
    }
    if (n && ((UCHAR(*cs) == 0xC0) || (UCHAR(*ct) == 0xC0))) {
      unsigned char c1, c2;
      c1 = ((UCHAR(*cs) == 0xC0) && (UCHAR(cs[1]) == 0x80)) ? 0 : UCHAR(*cs);
      c2 = ((UCHAR(*ct) == 0xC0) && (UCHAR(ct[1]) == 0x80)) ? 0 : UCHAR(*ct);
      result = (c1 - c2);
    }
    return result;
}

/*
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * Tcl_UtfNcmp --
 *
 *    Compare at most n UTF chars of string cs to string ct.  Both cs
 *    and ct are assumed to be at least n UTF chars long.
 *
 * Results:
 *    Return <0 if cs < ct, 0 if cs == ct, or >0 if cs > ct.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *    None.
 *
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

int
Tcl_UtfNcmp(cs, ct, n)
    CONST char *cs;           /* UTF string to compare to ct. */
    CONST char *ct;           /* UTF string cs is compared to. */
    unsigned long n;          /* Number of UTF chars to compare. */
{
    Tcl_UniChar ch1, ch2;
    /*
     * Cannot use 'memcmp(cs, ct, n);' as byte representation of
     * \u0000 (the pair of bytes 0xc0,0x80) is larger than byte
     * representation of \u0001 (the byte 0x01.)
     */
    while (n-- > 0) {
      /*
       * n must be interpreted as chars, not bytes.
       * This should be called only when both strings are of
       * at least n chars long (no need for \0 check)
       */
      cs += TclUtfToUniChar(cs, &ch1);
      ct += TclUtfToUniChar(ct, &ch2);
      if (ch1 != ch2) {
          return (ch1 - ch2);
      }
    }
    return 0;
}

/*
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * Tcl_UtfNcasecmp --
 *
 *    Compare at most n UTF chars of string cs to string ct case
 *    insensitive.  Both cs and ct are assumed to be at least n
 *    UTF chars long.
 *
 * Results:
 *    Return <0 if cs < ct, 0 if cs == ct, or >0 if cs > ct.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *    None.
 *
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

int
Tcl_UtfNcasecmp(cs, ct, n)
    CONST char *cs;           /* UTF string to compare to ct. */
    CONST char *ct;           /* UTF string cs is compared to. */
    unsigned long n;                /* Number of UTF chars to compare. */
{
    Tcl_UniChar ch1, ch2;
    while (n-- > 0) {
      /*
       * n must be interpreted as chars, not bytes.
       * This should be called only when both strings are of
       * at least n chars long (no need for \0 check)
       */
      cs += TclUtfToUniChar(cs, &ch1);
      ct += TclUtfToUniChar(ct, &ch2);
      if (ch1 != ch2) {
          ch1 = Tcl_UniCharToLower(ch1);
          ch2 = Tcl_UniCharToLower(ch2);
          if (ch1 != ch2) {
            return (ch1 - ch2);
          }
      }
    }
    return 0;
}

/*
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * Tcl_UniCharToUpper --
 *
 *    Compute the uppercase equivalent of the given Unicode character.
 *
 * Results:
 *    Returns the uppercase Unicode character.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *    None.
 *
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

Tcl_UniChar
Tcl_UniCharToUpper(ch)
    int ch;             /* Unicode character to convert. */
{
    int info = GetUniCharInfo(ch);

    if (GetCaseType(info) & 0x04) {
      return (Tcl_UniChar) (ch - GetDelta(info));
    } else {
      return ch;
    }
}

/*
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * Tcl_UniCharToLower --
 *
 *    Compute the lowercase equivalent of the given Unicode character.
 *
 * Results:
 *    Returns the lowercase Unicode character.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *    None.
 *
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

Tcl_UniChar
Tcl_UniCharToLower(ch)
    int ch;             /* Unicode character to convert. */
{
    int info = GetUniCharInfo(ch);

    if (GetCaseType(info) & 0x02) {
      return (Tcl_UniChar) (ch + GetDelta(info));
    } else {
      return ch;
    }
}

/*
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * Tcl_UniCharToTitle --
 *
 *    Compute the titlecase equivalent of the given Unicode character.
 *
 * Results:
 *    Returns the titlecase Unicode character.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *    None.
 *
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

Tcl_UniChar
Tcl_UniCharToTitle(ch)
    int ch;             /* Unicode character to convert. */
{
    int info = GetUniCharInfo(ch);
    int mode = GetCaseType(info);

    if (mode & 0x1) {
      /*
       * Subtract or add one depending on the original case.
       */

      return (Tcl_UniChar) (ch + ((mode & 0x4) ? -1 : 1));
    } else if (mode == 0x4) {
      return (Tcl_UniChar) (ch - GetDelta(info));
    } else {
      return ch;
    }
}

/*
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * Tcl_UniCharLen --
 *
 *    Find the length of a UniChar string.  The str input must be null
 *    terminated.
 *
 * Results:
 *    Returns the length of str in UniChars (not bytes).
 *
 * Side effects:
 *    None.
 *
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

int
Tcl_UniCharLen(str)
    CONST Tcl_UniChar *str;   /* Unicode string to find length of. */
{
    int len = 0;
    
    while (*str != '\0') {
      len++;
      str++;
    }
    return len;
}

/*
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * Tcl_UniCharNcmp --
 *
 *    Compare at most n unichars of string cs to string ct.  Both cs
 *    and ct are assumed to be at least n unichars long.
 *
 * Results:
 *    Return <0 if cs < ct, 0 if cs == ct, or >0 if cs > ct.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *    None.
 *
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

int
Tcl_UniCharNcmp(cs, ct, n)
    CONST Tcl_UniChar *cs;          /* Unicode string to compare to ct. */
    CONST Tcl_UniChar *ct;          /* Unicode string cs is compared to. */
    unsigned long n;                /* Number of unichars to compare. */
{
#ifdef WORDS_BIGENDIAN
    /*
     * We are definitely on a big-endian machine; memcmp() is safe
     */
    return memcmp(cs, ct, n*sizeof(Tcl_UniChar));

#else /* !WORDS_BIGENDIAN */
    /*
     * We can't simply call memcmp() because that is not lexically correct.
     */
    for ( ; n != 0; cs++, ct++, n--) {
      if (*cs != *ct) {
          return (*cs - *ct);
      }
    }
    return 0;
#endif /* WORDS_BIGENDIAN */
}

/*
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * Tcl_UniCharNcasecmp --
 *
 *    Compare at most n unichars of string cs to string ct case
 *    insensitive.  Both cs and ct are assumed to be at least n
 *    unichars long.
 *
 * Results:
 *    Return <0 if cs < ct, 0 if cs == ct, or >0 if cs > ct.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *    None.
 *
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

int
Tcl_UniCharNcasecmp(cs, ct, n)
    CONST Tcl_UniChar *cs;          /* Unicode string to compare to ct. */
    CONST Tcl_UniChar *ct;          /* Unicode string cs is compared to. */
    unsigned long n;                /* Number of unichars to compare. */
{
    for ( ; n != 0; n--, cs++, ct++) {
      if (*cs != *ct) {
          Tcl_UniChar lcs = Tcl_UniCharToLower(*cs);
          Tcl_UniChar lct = Tcl_UniCharToLower(*ct);
          if (lcs != lct) {
            return (lcs - lct);
          }
      }
    }
    return 0;
}

/*
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * Tcl_UniCharIsAlnum --
 *
 *    Test if a character is an alphanumeric Unicode character.
 *
 * Results:
 *    Returns 1 if character is alphanumeric.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *    None.
 *
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

int
Tcl_UniCharIsAlnum(ch)
    int ch;             /* Unicode character to test. */
{
    register int category = (GetUniCharInfo(ch) & UNICODE_CATEGORY_MASK);

    return (((ALPHA_BITS | DIGIT_BITS) >> category) & 1);
}

/*
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * Tcl_UniCharIsAlpha --
 *
 *    Test if a character is an alphabetic Unicode character.
 *
 * Results:
 *    Returns 1 if character is alphabetic.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *    None.
 *
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

int
Tcl_UniCharIsAlpha(ch)
    int ch;             /* Unicode character to test. */
{
    register int category = (GetUniCharInfo(ch) & UNICODE_CATEGORY_MASK);
    return ((ALPHA_BITS >> category) & 1);
}

/*
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * Tcl_UniCharIsControl --
 *
 *    Test if a character is a Unicode control character.
 *
 * Results:
 *    Returns non-zero if character is a control.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *    None.
 *
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

int
Tcl_UniCharIsControl(ch)
    int ch;             /* Unicode character to test. */
{
    return ((GetUniCharInfo(ch) & UNICODE_CATEGORY_MASK) == CONTROL);
}

/*
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * Tcl_UniCharIsDigit --
 *
 *    Test if a character is a numeric Unicode character.
 *
 * Results:
 *    Returns non-zero if character is a digit.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *    None.
 *
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

int
Tcl_UniCharIsDigit(ch)
    int ch;             /* Unicode character to test. */
{
    return ((GetUniCharInfo(ch) & UNICODE_CATEGORY_MASK)
          == DECIMAL_DIGIT_NUMBER);
}

/*
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * Tcl_UniCharIsGraph --
 *
 *    Test if a character is any Unicode print character except space.
 *
 * Results:
 *    Returns non-zero if character is printable, but not space.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *    None.
 *
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

int
Tcl_UniCharIsGraph(ch)
    int ch;             /* Unicode character to test. */
{
    register int category = (GetUniCharInfo(ch) & UNICODE_CATEGORY_MASK);
    return (((PRINT_BITS >> category) & 1) && ((unsigned char) ch != ' '));
}

/*
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * Tcl_UniCharIsLower --
 *
 *    Test if a character is a lowercase Unicode character.
 *
 * Results:
 *    Returns non-zero if character is lowercase.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *    None.
 *
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

int
Tcl_UniCharIsLower(ch)
    int ch;             /* Unicode character to test. */
{
    return ((GetUniCharInfo(ch) & UNICODE_CATEGORY_MASK) == LOWERCASE_LETTER);
}

/*
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * Tcl_UniCharIsPrint --
 *
 *    Test if a character is a Unicode print character.
 *
 * Results:
 *    Returns non-zero if character is printable.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *    None.
 *
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

int
Tcl_UniCharIsPrint(ch)
    int ch;             /* Unicode character to test. */
{
    register int category = (GetUniCharInfo(ch) & UNICODE_CATEGORY_MASK);
    return ((PRINT_BITS >> category) & 1);
}

/*
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * Tcl_UniCharIsPunct --
 *
 *    Test if a character is a Unicode punctuation character.
 *
 * Results:
 *    Returns non-zero if character is punct.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *    None.
 *
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

int
Tcl_UniCharIsPunct(ch)
    int ch;             /* Unicode character to test. */
{
    register int category = (GetUniCharInfo(ch) & UNICODE_CATEGORY_MASK);
    return ((PUNCT_BITS >> category) & 1);
}

/*
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * Tcl_UniCharIsSpace --
 *
 *    Test if a character is a whitespace Unicode character.
 *
 * Results:
 *    Returns non-zero if character is a space.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *    None.
 *
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

int
Tcl_UniCharIsSpace(ch)
    int ch;             /* Unicode character to test. */
{
    register int category;

    /*
     * If the character is within the first 127 characters, just use the
     * standard C function, otherwise consult the Unicode table.
     */

    if (ch < 0x80) {
      return isspace(UCHAR(ch)); /* INTL: ISO space */
    } else {
      category = (GetUniCharInfo(ch) & UNICODE_CATEGORY_MASK);
      return ((SPACE_BITS >> category) & 1);
    }
}

/*
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * Tcl_UniCharIsUpper --
 *
 *    Test if a character is a uppercase Unicode character.
 *
 * Results:
 *    Returns non-zero if character is uppercase.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *    None.
 *
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

int
Tcl_UniCharIsUpper(ch)
    int ch;             /* Unicode character to test. */
{
    return ((GetUniCharInfo(ch) & UNICODE_CATEGORY_MASK) == UPPERCASE_LETTER);
}

/*
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * Tcl_UniCharIsWordChar --
 *
 *    Test if a character is alphanumeric or a connector punctuation
 *    mark.
 *
 * Results:
 *    Returns 1 if character is a word character.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *    None.
 *
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

int
Tcl_UniCharIsWordChar(ch)
    int ch;             /* Unicode character to test. */
{
    register int category = (GetUniCharInfo(ch) & UNICODE_CATEGORY_MASK);

    return (((ALPHA_BITS | DIGIT_BITS | CONNECTOR_BITS) >> category) & 1);
}

/*
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * Tcl_UniCharCaseMatch --
 *
 *    See if a particular Unicode string matches a particular pattern.
 *    Allows case insensitivity.  This is the Unicode equivalent of
 *    the char* Tcl_StringCaseMatch.  The UniChar strings must be
 *    NULL-terminated.  This has no provision for counted UniChar
 *    strings, thus should not be used where NULLs are expected in the
 *    UniChar string.  Use TclUniCharMatch where possible.
 *
 * Results:
 *    The return value is 1 if string matches pattern, and
 *    0 otherwise.  The matching operation permits the following
 *    special characters in the pattern: *?\[] (see the manual
 *    entry for details on what these mean).
 *
 * Side effects:
 *    None.
 *
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

int
Tcl_UniCharCaseMatch(string, pattern, nocase)
    CONST Tcl_UniChar *string;      /* Unicode String. */
    CONST Tcl_UniChar *pattern;     /* Pattern, which may contain special
                         * characters. */
    int nocase;               /* 0 for case sensitive, 1 for insensitive */
{
    Tcl_UniChar ch1, p;
    
    while (1) {
      p = *pattern;
      
      /*
       * See if we're at the end of both the pattern and the string.  If
       * so, we succeeded.  If we're at the end of the pattern but not at
       * the end of the string, we failed.
       */
      
      if (p == 0) {
          return (*string == 0);
      }
      if ((*string == 0) && (p != '*')) {
          return 0;
      }

      /*
       * Check for a "*" as the next pattern character.  It matches any
       * substring.  We handle this by skipping all the characters up to the
       * next matching one in the pattern, and then calling ourselves
       * recursively for each postfix of string, until either we match or we
       * reach the end of the string.
       */
      
      if (p == '*') {
          /*
           * Skip all successive *'s in the pattern
           */
          while (*(++pattern) == '*') {}
          p = *pattern;
          if (p == 0) {
            return 1;
          }
          if (nocase) {
            p = Tcl_UniCharToLower(p);
          }
          while (1) {
            /*
             * Optimization for matching - cruise through the string
             * quickly if the next char in the pattern isn't a special
             * character
             */
            if ((p != '[') && (p != '?') && (p != '\\')) {
                if (nocase) {
                  while (*string && (p != *string)
                        && (p != Tcl_UniCharToLower(*string))) {
                      string++;
                  }
                } else {
                  while (*string && (p != *string)) { string++; }
                }
            }
            if (Tcl_UniCharCaseMatch(string, pattern, nocase)) {
                return 1;
            }
            if (*string == 0) {
                return 0;
            }
            string++;
          }
      }

      /*
       * Check for a "?" as the next pattern character.  It matches
       * any single character.
       */

      if (p == '?') {
          pattern++;
          string++;
          continue;
      }

      /*
       * Check for a "[" as the next pattern character.  It is followed
       * by a list of characters that are acceptable, or by a range
       * (two characters separated by "-").
       */
      
      if (p == '[') {
          Tcl_UniChar startChar, endChar;

          pattern++;
          ch1 = (nocase ? Tcl_UniCharToLower(*string) : *string);
          string++;
          while (1) {
            if ((*pattern == ']') || (*pattern == 0)) {
                return 0;
            }
            startChar = (nocase ? Tcl_UniCharToLower(*pattern) : *pattern);
            pattern++;
            if (*pattern == '-') {
                pattern++;
                if (*pattern == 0) {
                  return 0;
                }
                endChar = (nocase ? Tcl_UniCharToLower(*pattern)
                      : *pattern);
                pattern++;
                if (((startChar <= ch1) && (ch1 <= endChar))
                      || ((endChar <= ch1) && (ch1 <= startChar))) {
                  /*
                   * Matches ranges of form [a-z] or [z-a].
                   */
                  break;
                }
            } else if (startChar == ch1) {
                break;
            }
          }
          while (*pattern != ']') {
            if (*pattern == 0) {
                pattern--;
                break;
            }
            pattern++;
          }
          pattern++;
          continue;
      }

      /*
       * If the next pattern character is '\', just strip off the '\'
       * so we do exact matching on the character that follows.
       */

      if (p == '\\') {
          if (*(++pattern) == '\0') {
            return 0;
          }
      }

      /*
       * There's no special character.  Just make sure that the next
       * bytes of each string match.
       */

      if (nocase) {
          if (Tcl_UniCharToLower(*string) != Tcl_UniCharToLower(*pattern)) {
            return 0;
          }
      } else if (*string != *pattern) {
          return 0;
      }
      string++;
      pattern++;
    }
}

/*
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * TclUniCharMatch --
 *
 *    See if a particular Unicode string matches a particular pattern.
 *    Allows case insensitivity.  This is the Unicode equivalent of the
 *    char* Tcl_StringCaseMatch.  This variant of Tcl_UniCharCaseMatch
 *    uses counted Strings, so embedded NULLs are allowed.
 *
 * Results:
 *    The return value is 1 if string matches pattern, and
 *    0 otherwise.  The matching operation permits the following
 *    special characters in the pattern: *?\[] (see the manual
 *    entry for details on what these mean).
 *
 * Side effects:
 *    None.
 *
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

int
TclUniCharMatch(string, strLen, pattern, ptnLen, nocase)
    CONST Tcl_UniChar *string;      /* Unicode String. */
    int strLen;               /* length of String */
    CONST Tcl_UniChar *pattern;     /* Pattern, which may contain special
                         * characters. */
    int ptnLen;               /* length of Pattern */
    int nocase;               /* 0 for case sensitive, 1 for insensitive */
{
    CONST Tcl_UniChar *stringEnd, *patternEnd;
    Tcl_UniChar p;

    stringEnd  = string + strLen;
    patternEnd = pattern + ptnLen;

    while (1) {
      /*
       * See if we're at the end of both the pattern and the string.  If
       * so, we succeeded.  If we're at the end of the pattern but not at
       * the end of the string, we failed.
       */

      if (pattern == patternEnd) {
          return (string == stringEnd);
      }
      p = *pattern;
      if ((string == stringEnd) && (p != '*')) {
          return 0;
      }

      /*
       * Check for a "*" as the next pattern character.  It matches any
       * substring.  We handle this by skipping all the characters up to the
       * next matching one in the pattern, and then calling ourselves
       * recursively for each postfix of string, until either we match or we
       * reach the end of the string.
       */
      
      if (p == '*') {
          /*
           * Skip all successive *'s in the pattern
           */
          while (*(++pattern) == '*') {}
          if (pattern == patternEnd) {
            return 1;
          }
          p = *pattern;
          if (nocase) {
            p = Tcl_UniCharToLower(p);
          }
          while (1) {
            /*
             * Optimization for matching - cruise through the string
             * quickly if the next char in the pattern isn't a special
             * character
             */
            if ((p != '[') && (p != '?') && (p != '\\')) {
                if (nocase) {
                  while ((string < stringEnd) && (p != *string)
                        && (p != Tcl_UniCharToLower(*string))) {
                      string++;
                  }
                } else {
                  while ((string < stringEnd) && (p != *string)) {
                      string++;
                  }
                }
            }
            if (TclUniCharMatch(string, stringEnd - string,
                  pattern, patternEnd - pattern, nocase)) {
                return 1;
            }
            if (string == stringEnd) {
                return 0;
            }
            string++;
          }
      }

      /*
       * Check for a "?" as the next pattern character.  It matches
       * any single character.
       */

      if (p == '?') {
          pattern++;
          string++;
          continue;
      }

      /*
       * Check for a "[" as the next pattern character.  It is followed
       * by a list of characters that are acceptable, or by a range
       * (two characters separated by "-").
       */
      
      if (p == '[') {
          Tcl_UniChar ch1, startChar, endChar;

          pattern++;
          ch1 = (nocase ? Tcl_UniCharToLower(*string) : *string);
          string++;
          while (1) {
            if ((*pattern == ']') || (pattern == patternEnd)) {
                return 0;
            }
            startChar = (nocase ? Tcl_UniCharToLower(*pattern) : *pattern);
            pattern++;
            if (*pattern == '-') {
                pattern++;
                if (pattern == patternEnd) {
                  return 0;
                }
                endChar = (nocase ? Tcl_UniCharToLower(*pattern)
                      : *pattern);
                pattern++;
                if (((startChar <= ch1) && (ch1 <= endChar))
                      || ((endChar <= ch1) && (ch1 <= startChar))) {
                  /*
                   * Matches ranges of form [a-z] or [z-a].
                   */
                  break;
                }
            } else if (startChar == ch1) {
                break;
            }
          }
          while (*pattern != ']') {
            if (pattern == patternEnd) {
                pattern--;
                break;
            }
            pattern++;
          }
          pattern++;
          continue;
      }

      /*
       * If the next pattern character is '\', just strip off the '\'
       * so we do exact matching on the character that follows.
       */

      if (p == '\\') {
          if (++pattern == patternEnd) {
            return 0;
          }
      }

      /*
       * There's no special character.  Just make sure that the next
       * bytes of each string match.
       */

      if (nocase) {
          if (Tcl_UniCharToLower(*string) != Tcl_UniCharToLower(*pattern)) {
            return 0;
          }
      } else if (*string != *pattern) {
          return 0;
      }
      string++;
      pattern++;
    }
}

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